3D Printing Ceramic Structures

Particle3D is founded on a widely applicable and worldwide IP protected technology invented while investigating the possibility of 3D printing bone implants for human use.

Our solution is a bio-ink composed of powder particles suspended in a solid but meltable fatty acid matrix. The bio-ink enables a new 3D additive manufacturing process where objects are constructed directly from a computer-aided design (CAD) file. The bio-ink is loaded into a syringe, heated to its melting point and extruded as a thin line onto a cooler stage on which it re-solidifies. The fatty acid is then removed through burning and the powders are sintered or fused together.

The invention can be used with many materials and in many industries beyond the medical field.

Good Preclinical Proof

Good preclinical proof demonstrates that our implants perform as well as predicted.

The implants are mechanically strong and free from contaminants.

They have also proved to support the rapid formation of new vascularized bone and to integrate with neighboring bone in vivo. These results have been published in well-recognized scientific papers.

The Power of 3D Printing

3D printing enables the production of bone implants that are patient-fitted and naturally porous.

The internal bone-like porosity, obtained through 3D printing, allows for a strong and rapid ingrowth of bone tissue and low risk of complications due to bacterial infections, as the immune system is allowed access to the entirety of the implant.

We work in close collaboration with surgeons with an aim to provide implants fitted for each specific patient by using their personal CT data.
This improves patient outcomes as the implant provides exact anatomic repair, and the operating time is also greatly reduced as the surgeon does not need to manually adjust implants during surgery.


Natural Biomaterials

Our P3D Bone implants, and P3D Scaffolds for research, are 3D printed with a completely degradable bio-ink composed of β-tricalcium phosphate.

The β-TCP material demonstrates favorable biocompatibility, osteoconduction with a rapid formation of new vascularized bone, and a simultaneous and balanced biodegradability.
This allows for the implant to biodegrade to leave only the patient’s new grown bone in place. Namely, as new bone marrow and blood vessels develop inside the implant, it gradually remodels into the patient’s own living bone, thus becoming a natural part of the body. 



Slots, Casper, et al. “Simple additive manufacturing of an osteoconductive ceramic using suspension melt extrusion.” Dental Materials 33.2 (2017): 198-208. Get access here
Jensen, Martin Bonde, et al. “Composites of fatty acids and ceramic powders are versatile biomaterials for personalized implants and controlled release of pharmaceuticals.” Bioprinting 10 (2018): e00027. Get access here
Jensen, Martin Bonde, et al. “The performance of a new generation of 3D printed and drug and stem cell loaded implants in vitro and in vivo.” DASCS2017 Stem Cell Conference. 2017. See poster

“Treating mouse skull defects with 3D printed fatty acid and tricalcium phosphate implants.” (not yet published, under review).