P3D Research Line

Uniquely Lifelike Bone Environments

Create Predictive Models of Human Biology with P3D Scaffolds

Our bones are of vital importance for our health, function, and appearance. Unfortunately, a wide variety of diseases can affect our bones such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, bone tumors, osteomyelitis, and different forms of trauma, both surgical and accidental.

Developing treatments for such diseases is of great importance and this requires bone models wherein disease mechanisms can be studied, and new treatments can be tested.

To enable scientists to do this important work, Particle3D is now offering a porous bone-like scaffold based upon 3D printed β-tricalcium phosphate.

The P3D Scaffold is used to create more relevant tissue- and disease models that capture the complex interplay between cells, and can also be used in vivo.

Directly Translate Your Research From In Vitro to In Vivo

The idea behind P3D Scaffolds is to give researchers the opportunity to perform their in vitro experiments in a clinically relevant context that mimics the complexity of the tissue. With P3D Scaffolds, the conclusions derived from your in vitro experiments accurately account for the events that occur in vivo.

The porous 3D structure supports the natural self-organization of cells and maintains relevant cell signaling. By enabling the creation of more relevant co-culture models, we aim to help researchers enhance research and accelerate the development of new human therapies while reducing the need for animal testing.

P3D Scaffolds can also be used in vivo. Using the same natural material and 3D structure across research methods secures optimal conditions to obtain accurate and highly predictive results. 

Why 3D Printed Scaffolds?

Particle3D 3D prints the β-TCP structures with internal porosities to maximize the surface area onto which cells can attach. Our 3D structures allow researchers to add different cells and pharmaceuticals onto these structures to study how they interact with each other and the bone within its pores. For example:

  • Mesenchymal stem cells or osteoblasts can be added to study how new bone develops in bone grafts.

  • Osteoclasts and macrophages can be added to study bone destruction in osteoporosis/arthritis.

  • Cancer cells can be added to study the development of bone tumors and how they destroy bone.

  • Bacteria cells can be added to create an osteomyelitis model to study how they destroy bone and evade the immune system and pharmaceuticals.

A wide range of cells, complex co-cultures of cells, and drug candidates can be studied on the structures. Compared to 2D cultures, the P3D Scaffolds better mimic the architecture and complexity of human bone and can be used to test the therapies in lifelike structures wherein drug perfusion is uneven and where bacteria and cancer cells may hide in pores. This allows for more realistic tests that are thus more likely to yield results when subsequently translated.


Why Tricalcium Phosphate?

The P3D Scaffolds are made from a nonpolymeric bioink of beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and fatty acid. Because P3D Scaffolds emulate natural bone tissue in terms of both material and structure, the scaffolds facilitate a realistic cell differentiation and proliferation.

Since β-TCP is a widely used bone graft substitute, your results will be directly relevant to the many patients that are treated with β-TCP.

Want assistance with your next research project? 

We are committed to using our expertise in medical 3D printing to help meet your specific research needs. Let’s have a chat about how you can use P3D Scaffolds in your study.



Patent status: The product is protected by one or more US, European, and/or foreign patents.

Disclaimer: The products are “For Research Use Only (RUO)” and should not be used for clinical purposes. Particle3D makes no other warranties, expressed or implied, including the implied warranty of merchantability and the implied warranty of fitness for particular purpose.