A Patient Specific and Resorbable Bone Implant
P3D Bone PSI is a Patient Specific Implant that remodels into real living bone. Made from pure, 3D printed ß-tricalcium phosphate, the individualized implant delivers a natural bone porosity according to the recipient’s bone tissue type in the relevant area. The result is a more natural implant in terms of both material, shape, and structure that enables a full restoration of the functionality and appearance of facial bones.
P3D Bone demonstrates favorable biocompatibility, osteoconduction with a rapid formation of new vascularized bone, osseointegration, and a simultaneous and balanced biodegradability (1).
Particle3D’s novel 3D printing technology will allow surgeons to reconstruct and augment bone with the patient’s uniqueness in mind. The P3D Bone PSI requires no manual adjustment in the operating room and eliminates the need to harvest bone as well as the need for permanent and ill-fitting implants. With P3D Bone, surgeons can provide an implant that precisely matches patient needs, thereby improving patient outcomes and procedural efficiency and reducing the risk of adverse effects.
Tricalcium Phosphate: The Optimal Synthetic Choice
Beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is the gold standard within synthetic bone graft materials (2). It is biodegradable and biocompatible and has been widely used clinically for filling and reconstructing bony defects in orthopedic surgery and dentistry.
β-TCP is the major mineral of the intercellular composite of human bones; this is why we want to rebuild them using β-TCP as this mineral contains only phosphate and calcium.
The material has the potential to optimize and surpass the natural osteoconductive and osteoinductive qualities of autogenous grafts, thereby reducing complications such as infections, bleeding, and rejections (3).
Intended Use Case of P3D Bone PSI
The hospital or clinic performs a CT or MRI scan of the patient which is sent to Particle3D.
Based on the scan, Particle3D 3D models the patient specific implant using a software tool.
The surgeon accepts an implant design, and this is sent to a conveniently located Particle3D Hub.
The Particle3D production hub prints, sterilizes and freights the implant to the hospital or clinic.
The hospital or clinic receives the implant within 1-2 weeks after scan data is sent to Particle3D, and performs the surgery.
Effective Bone Reconstruction and 3D Bone Regeneration
P3D Bone is 3D printed with large interconnected macropores to enhance cell attachment, growth and migration; this mimics the trabecular bone structure observed in human bones and induces the bone regeneration process.
The porous structure with physiologically relevant macropores and significant microporosity enables a strong ingrowth of new bone. Meanwhile, the implant’s natural chemical composition provides the ideal conditions for a simultaneous bioresorbability. This process ensures an effective remodeling of the implant into new vascularized bone (4), thereby inducing fast recovery.
(1) Jensen, M. B., Slots, C., Ditzel, N., Albrektsen, O., Borg, S., Thygesen, T., … & Andersen, M. Ø. (2018). Composites of fatty acids and ceramic powders are versatile biomaterials for personalized implants and controlled release of pharmaceuticals. Bioprinting, 10, e00027.
(2) Fernandez de Grado G, Keller L, Idoux-Gillet Y, Wagner Q, Musset AM, Benkirane-Jessel N, et al. Bone substitutes: a review of their characteristics, clinical use, and perspectives for large bone defects management. J Tissue Eng. 2018;9:2041731418776819.
(3) St, T. J., Vaccaro, A. R., Sah, A. P., Schaefer, M., Berta, S. C., Albert, T., & Hilibrand, A. (2003). Physical and monetary costs associated with autogenous bone graft harvesting. American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, NJ), 32(1), 18-23.
(4) Zhang, B., Sun, H., Wu, L., Ma, L., Xing, F., Kong, Q., … & Zhang, X. (2019). 3D printing of calcium phosphate bioceramic with tailored biodegradation rate for skull bone tissue reconstruction. Bio-Design and Manufacturing, 2(3), 161-171.