Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

 

Our team has collected the questions we are asked freqently about our P3D Scaffolds and provided the answers here.
Click on the questions below to get useful advice on how to optimize your research results.

General Questions

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Many methods may be used for analyzing the biological activity on the 3D printed structures.
Particle3D has used the following methods with success: 
 
  • Inverted light microscopy (through the pores)
  • Fluorescence microscopy such as for human or bacterial cells that are labelled with green fluorescent protein (GFP)
  • Nucleic acid extraction for PCR and next generation sequencing (NGS), we recommend using the PowerSoil kits from Qiagen for nucleic acid extraction
  • Staining assays such as sirius red staining and fast green staining for collagen and protein deposition, respectively, the dyes may be detached from the 3D structures after staining for quantification using absorbance
  • Enzymatic assays such as the p-nitrophenyl phosphate based assay for alkaline phosphatase activity
  • Micro-computed tomography (microCT) imaging
  • Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM)
  • Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX/EDS)
  • X-ray fluorescence (XRF)
  • Raman spectroscopy
Why choose 3D cell cultures over 2D cultures?

3D cellular models are better and more reliable research models than traditional 2D cultures since the cells in our bodies do not grow flat in a monolayer. The P3D Scaffolds maintain the cell-to-cell interaction and the cell-to-matrix interaction. By providing a more accurate replica of the bone composition and stiffness of the tissue, the 3D scaffolds offer an opportunity to better understand complex biology in a physiologically relevant context.

Furthermore, one disruptive driver of switching to 3D techniques from conventional methods is the possible reduction in researchers’ reliance on in vivo animal models to obtain more relevant data. Reducing the use of in vivo animal models, owing to the relevant and predictive data from 3D cellular models, may consequently reduce the costs and time needed to get new human therapeutics into the clinic. 

Read more in our blog post: How 3D culturing is revolutionizing the fields of disease modeling and regenerative medicine

Why are the scaffolds fabricated via 3D printing?

The P3D Scaffolds are 3D printed to create internal porosities that mimic the porous structure observed in human bones. In consequence, the lifelike structures enable cells to develop and migrate like they would inside the body. This ensures that your in vitro results accurately account for the events that occur in vivo.

 

Scaffold Usage

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Many methods may be used for analyzing the biological activity on the 3D printed structures.
Particle3D has used the following methods with success: 
 
  • Inverted light microscopy (through the pores)
  • Fluorescence microscopy such as for human or bacterial cells that are labelled with green fluorescent protein (GFP)
  • Nucleic acid extraction for PCR and next generation sequencing (NGS), we recommend using the PowerSoil kits from Qiagen for nucleic acid extraction
  • Staining assays such as sirius red staining and fast green staining for collagen and protein deposition, respectively, the dyes may be detached from the 3D structures after staining for quantification using absorbance
  • Enzymatic assays such as the p-nitrophenyl phosphate based assay for alkaline phosphatase activity
  • Micro-computed tomography (microCT) imaging
  • Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM)
  • Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX/EDS)
  • X-ray fluorescence (XRF)
  • Raman spectroscopy
Which assays and analytical methods are compatible with the scaffolds?
Many methods may be used for analyzing the biological activity on the 3D printed structures.
Particle3D has successfully used the following methods: 
 
  • Inverted light microscopy (through the pores)
  • Fluorescence microscopy such as for human or bacterial cells that are labelled with green fluorescent protein (GFP)
  • Nucleic acid extraction for PCR and next generation sequencing (NGS), we recommend using the PowerSoil kits from Qiagen for nucleic acid extraction
  • Staining assays such as sirius red staining and fast green staining for collagen and protein deposition, respectively, the dyes may be detached from the 3D structures after staining for quantification using absorbance
  • Enzymatic assays such as the p-nitrophenyl phosphate based assay for alkaline phosphatase activity
  • Micro-computed tomography (microCT) imaging
  • Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM)
  • Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX/EDS)
  • X-ray fluorescence (XRF)
  • Raman spectroscopy
What cells can be grown on the P3D Scaffolds?
Many different cells may be grown and studied on the 3D printed structures. These include, but are not limited to:
 
  • Stem cells including human mesenchymal stem cells, and osteoblasts. These may be used for studying bone development.
  • Cancer cells including oral carcinoma and lung cancer cells. These may be used to study cancer invasion and metastasis in bones, a frequent site of cancer metastasis, and test treatments of bone tumors using therapeutics.
  • Human mesenchymal stem cells and cancer cell lines can be co-cultured on the scaffolds. Thereby, you can form a realistic scenario, with cancer cells mixed in with normal cells, which subsequently can be subjected to chemotherapeutic treatment to measure and compare the effects of the chemotherapeutic responses.

 

What microorganisms can be grown on the P3D Scaffolds?
P3D Scaffolds can be used to grow and study a variety of microorganisms. Particle3D has successfully grown the following microorganisms on the P3D Scaffolds:
  • Pathogenic bacteria including staphylococcus aureus. These may be used to study osteomyelitis, surgical site infections and implant biofilms, and prevention and treatment of these conditions using pharmaceutics.
  • Environmental microorganisms including bacteria and fungi. These may be used to study the interaction between environmental microorganisms and inorganic 3D structures that mimic environmental structures like soil, rocks, sediment, and building materials.
Which diseases may be studied on the P3D Scaffolds?
The P3D Scaffold enables the creation of good disease models, such as bone tumors, and is useful for studying diseases like bone metastasis, osteomyelitis, and osteoporosis. For example:
  • Osteoclasts and macrophages can be added to study the bone destruction occurring in osteoporosis / osteoarthritis.
  • Bacteria cells could be added to create an osteomyelitis model to study how they destroy bone and evade the immune system as well as drugs.
  • Cancer cells can be added to study the development of bone tumors and how they destroy bone.
Can the scaffolds be used for both in vitro and in vivo research?

Yes, you can use the P3D Scaffolds both in your laboratory research and animal trials to ensure consistency across research methods.

Since P3D Scaffolds do not contain any materials foreign to the body, the bone models are well suited for in vivo animal trials as well as in vitro tests. This secures that the conclusions derived from in vitro experiments accurately account for the events that occur in vivo.

Disclaimer: The products are “For Research Use Only (RUO)” and should not be used for clinical purposes. Particle3D makes no other warranties, expressed or implied, including the implied warranty of merchantability and the implied warranty of fitness for particular purpose.

 

 

Physical and Chemical Properties

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Yes, you can request your preferred quantity as well as size, and the price is adjusted accordingly.

How can I customize the scaffolds to my study?

You can choose between: 

  • Three different designs (grid, gyroid, or honeycomb)
  • Three different standard sizes: 12, 20 or 30 mm
  • If you want your scaffolds with or without a solid base of the scaffold
  • Porosity (high, medium, or low)

Further design modifications are available upon request for a specially designed P3D Scaffold tailored to your in vitro or in vivo study.

What are the P3D Scaffolds made from?

P3D Scaffolds are polymer free and made of 100% pure tricalcium phosphate.

The scaffolds are 3D printed from Particle3D’s novel nonpolymeric bioink, comprising the bioceramic material, β-tricalcium phospate (β-TCP), which is biocompatible and bioresorbable. 

P3D Scaffolds are available in regular β-TCP or ultra clean β-TCP.

 

 

How to Order

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Yes, you can request your preferred quantity as well as size, and the price is adjusted accordingly.

How do I order the P3D Scaffolds?

The P3D Scaffolds are customized and 3D printed based on your research needs. Therefore, we ask you to tell us about your requirements for the scaffolds, and we will help find the best solution for you.

Please feel free to contact us for a non-committal discussion or quote.

What is the price?

P3D Scaffolds are provided at a unit price dependent on scaffold size (12, 20, or 30 mm), or at a fixed price for a 6-, 12-, or 24-well plate, respectively. Three full-plate options are available:

  • 24x 12 mm P3D Scaffold
  • 12x 20 mm P3D Scaffold
  • 6x x 30 mm P3D Scaffold

You can see all our prices here.

If you have any questions or requests, please do not hesitate to contact us.